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Variety Of Indonesian Traditional Weaving Patterns

Variety Of Traditional Weaving Patterns In Indonesia The Indonesian archipelago stretches from west to east, from Sabang Island at the northern tip of Sumatra Island to the city of Merauke in the eastern part of West Papua Island. Of the vast and many lands inhabited by various tribes, each tribe has a culture that is inherited by their ancestors who accompany their daily lives. This cultural heritage is still sustainable today.
Tenun Ikat/ weaving from east of Indonesia
Source : Google Image
One of the cultures that have been passed down from generation to generation and are still ongoing today is the skill of weaving. At first, the weaving produced was used to meet their clothing needs, but now the cloth made with traditional looms and done by hand has become more of an icon. The results of ethnic weaving as souvenir items that represent each tribe and region in Indonesia, among others:

Tenun Ikat

It is called ikat because, in the dyeing process, the thread that will be used for weaving is tied to several parts according to the pattern. There are various types of ikat weaving, the difference starting from the material for weaving, the technique of making it, style, and philosophy to the regions and tribes that inherit the skills of this ikat weaving.

The main characteristic of ikat weaving is thread coloring, namely by tying the warp or weft threads or both according to a predetermined pattern. Differences in Fastening Techniques Lungsi tie weaving The formation of the warp ikat weaving, as the name implies is by tying the warp threads. Warp threads are threads that are laid in a vertical position in a traditional loom. The purpose of binding the warp threads is as a color barrier so that the color does not hit the part of the thread outside the pattern when dyeing.

a. The warp threads in the next process will be linked in a loom in a vertical position, then interspersed with weft threads. Weft threads are threads arranged horizontally which are inserted into the arrangement of the warp threads according to the planned pattern so that later after weaving, the weaving results will be obtained in a desired pattern and motif. 
Areas that include producing warp ikat weaving are Sulawesi, North Sumatra, Sumba, and Flores.

b. Weaving Weft The opposite of the warp ikat weaving, the threads that will be placed in a horizontal position will be tied and then proceed with the coloring process. The next process is almost the same as the weaving process in the warp weaving technique. This weft technique is the hallmark of weaving in Palembang, Sumatra, Java, Bali, and Central Sulawesi. 

c. Double Tie Weaving In the double ikat technique, the two threads, both the warp and weft threads, will be tied separately and then followed by the dyeing process. Tying the two lines of warp and weft threads in the dyeing process to form a more elaborate pattern, the Balinese and Minasa use this technique.

Tenun Ikat Minahasa, North Sulawesi

Weaving Bentenan from Minahasa
Source : Google Image
Minahasa has a cultural heritage of Ikat weaving known as Bentenan ikat weaving. Another feature of the Minahasa ikat weaving is that it is woven without interruption into a seamless sarong. Another uniqueness of this Bentenan ikat weaving is that it uses a complicated double ikat technique, which produces more detailed and subtle patterns. This double weave uses the technique of tying the warp threads which in Minahasa is called wasa'lene according to the pattern in the dyeing process.

Furthermore, the warp threads which are vertically positioned, and weft threads (in Minahasa terms it is called sa'lange) which are arranged in a horizontal position are also tied to adjust the color pattern. So far, it is known that only Minahasa and Bali use this double tie technique. The dyes used in dyeing woven yarns use natural materials obtained from Minahasa nature. Bentenan weaving itself has seven motifs, namely, Pinatikan, sinoi, tonilama, kalwu patola, tononton mata and the tinompak horse motif.

Tenun Ikat Donggala, Central Sulawesi

Weaving from Donggala, Sulawesi
Source : Google Image

Ikat weaving originating from Donggala district, has its own characteristics when compared to the variety of ikat from other regions in Indonesia. The hallmark of Donggala ikat weaving is the color, which is dominated by bold colors such as fiery red, orange, yellow or even black. Donggala weaving itself has two creations, namely Bomba ikat weaving and Subi ikat weaving. Floral, leaf and other fauna motifs as well as geometric motifs are the motifs commonly used in Donggala weaving .

The basic ingredients for making this ikat are made from silk, cotton or a mixture of silk and cotton. One of the centers for the Donggala weaving craft is located in Limboro village, Bawana sub-district, Donggala district, Central Sulawesi. Limboro Village, Kec. Central Banawa, Donggala area, precisely in Watusapu Village. Donggala traditional ikat has a distinctive motif and decoration, namely flowers, leaves, fauna, as well as geometric elements in the coloring and manufacturing techniques.

Tenun Ikat Sukomandi Kalumpang, West Sulawesi

Sukomadi weaving from West Sulawesi
Source : Google Image

One of the ikat patterns produced by the people of West Sulawesi is called Sukomandi Ikat Tenun, Sukomandi has the meaning of close brotherhood. Ikat weaving is made with the basic ingredients of yarn spun from cotton grown in people's gardens. The work of the Sukomandi ikat weaving requires a relatively long time when compared to the ikat produced by other regions. The dyeing alone requires the craftsman to take at least one month to soak the yarn in the dye liquid. For natural dyes, the thread continues to go back and forth every day. 

Historically, the Sukomandi ikat weaving is a relic of the Kalumpang people who inhabit one of the districts in Mamuju district, West Sulawesi. This Sukomandi ikat has clear boundaries with a combination of green, cream, brown, red, yellow, and orange colors.

Tenun Ikat Toraja, South Sulawesi

Pa Bannang, the motif is in the form of stripes on the fabric
Source : Google Image

Like traditional weaving in general, the patterns and motifs embedded in it have a philosophical meaning and message. Initially, Toraja weaving used raw materials such as pineapple fiber and cotton. The two materials are spun using a traditional spun tool which the Toraja people call Unuran. 

In Toraja weaving, the colors that are often used are natural colors such as red, green, black, and blue. Some of the motifs that are often found in Toraja weaving include: a. Pa bua Tina, the motif resembles a hibiscus fruit b. Pa Bannang, the motif is in the form of stripes on the fabric c. Tau-tau, the motif dominated with a scarecrow motif

How to Get There

Sulawesi Island is in the middle of the Indonesian archipelago, there are three international airports located there, namely: 1. Sultan Hassanudin Airport, located in Makassar, the capital city of South Sulawesi 2. Sam Ratulange Airport, located in Manado, the capital city of North Sulawesi 3. SIS Al Jufrie Airport, located in Palu, the capital city of Central Sulawesi
How to get there
Source : Google Image

Unfortunately, there are no direct flights from abroad that go to the airport, so you have to choose an airport for departure from within the territory of Indonesia. Some departure airports such as Sukarno Hatta, in Jakarta or Juanda Airport in Surabaya or you can depart from Ngurah-Rai Airport at Denpasar, Bali. 

Toraja land elevation varies between 300 - 2900 above sea level. If you want to visit Toraja, which is located north of Makassar, it can be reached by traveling. Several choices of means of transportation are available there, but you should go by using an open trip Travel Agent which is widely spread there. You can check out some travel services here.

The distance between Makassar City and Toraja Regency is about 230 Km, usually with a tourism bus, it is a 7-9 hour journey with several stops at rest areas. Information for those of you who don't know, Toraja is also a famous tourist destination with stone graves on mountain cliffs. Many attractions are often held there so that Toraja is visited by many tourists from within and outside the country, especially if there is a traditional ceremony festival. 

Regarding Toraja tourism, it is a pity if you miss it, you can check here. In Toraja, there are several choices of places to stay, ranging from hotels and guest houses to home stays. For this place to stay, you should make an online reservation to ensure the availability of a place, so that when you get there you can immediately clean up or rest. You can see several choices of places to stay here.

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